This page contains links to articles on other sites and to academic and scientific papers.


Links to articles on History of transgender

Endres, Nikolai. Galli: Ancient Roman Priests. 2005.


Links to articles on Islam

Article on the difficulty of reforming Islam.

Why the Islamic World Turned Away from Science, by Hillel Ofek. Pub. The New Atlantis.

This link is to the online Quranic Arabic Corpus, which brings together 7 different translations of the Quran (Koran). Easy to use and searchable.


Sex, Gender and Sexuality
Links to Full Books, download for free

Bailey, Dr J M. The Man Who Would Be Queen.

Excellent primer explaining Blanchard’s Typology of Transsexualism. Review HERE.

Ellis, H. Havelock. Studies in the Psychology of Sex. Volumes 1-6 (Project Gutenberg, multiple file formats.)

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Volume 4

Volume 5

Volume 6

Stryker, S., Whittle, S., (Eds) The Transgender Studies Reader

Collected essays. While biased towards a Humanities-based approach and lacking sufficient scientific input, still a useful read.

Raymond, J. The Transsexual Empire.

Raymond’s provocative critique of transsexualism. This has been the foundation of much feminist criticism of transsexuals. Review to follow.

 Links to Peer-reviewed papers.

Alexander, Hines. Sex differences in response to children’s toys in nonhuman primates. 2002.

Auer M K. Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation.

Beemyn & Rankin. Understanding Transgender Lives

Bentler, P. A typology of transsexualism: Gender identity theory and data.

This paper pre-dates Blanchard and in it the authors describe three types of transsexual: homosexual, asexual and heterosexual. Blanchard was able to reconcile the two latter groups into one, autogynephilic.

Blanchard, R, The Concept of Autogynephilia and the Typology of Male Gender Dysphoria.

This is paper sets out the basis of Blanchard’s typology. The appendix contains his questionnaires. One of the most important sentences in it is this:

‘the central prediction of the present study, namely, that autogynephilic behavior will be reported more frequently by non-homosexual than by homosexual gender dysphorics.’ (My emphasis.)

It has been the consistent attempt of Western autogynephilic activists to attack Blanchard for making what they call ‘generalisations’. That is a straw man. Blanchard, in all his  papers, is careful not to go beyond the science. This is demonstrated here. Unfortunately, too many people with a Humanities background, and who do not understand that science is about finding reasonable explanations for observed phenomena, think that their philosophical contentions are somehow worthwhile.

Blanchard, R. A History of Autogynephilia (pdf) Blanchard- History of Autogynephilia

Blanchard, R. Typology of male-to-female transsexualism

Blanchard, R. The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias

Blanchard R, Collins PI., “Men with sexual interest in transvestites, transsexuals, and she-males”

Blanchard R., “The she-male phenomenon and the concept of partial autogynephilia”

Blanchard R,et al. Comparison of height and weight in homosexual versus nonhomosexual male gender dysphorics.

Bockting et al. Gay and bisexual identity development among female-to-male transsexuals in North America: emergence of a transgender sexuality.

Del Giudice, M. Joel et al.’s method systematically fails to detect large, consistent sex differences (in human brains.) 2016. (Letter)

Freund, K. et al. Two types of cross-gender identity

Green et al. Specific cross-gender behaviour in boyhood and later homosexual orientation.

Green, R. Gender Identity in Childhood and Later Sexual Orientation: Follow-Up of 78 Males (1983) (abstract)

Guillamon, A, et al. A Review of the Status of Brain Structure Research in Transsexualism

Hare et al. Androgen receptor repeat length polymorphism associated with male-to-female transsexualism.

Looks at possible genetic causes for MtF transsexualism. Does not control for HSTS/AGP difference, so is problematic.  However, if its findings refer to HSTS, then it would be consistent with Blanchard.

Hsu,  Rosenthal, Miller and Bailey, “Who are gynandromorphophilic men? Characterizing men with sexual interest in transgender women

Lagos et al. Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study. 2013.

Study of homosexual transsexuals, both MtF and FtM. Non-homosexual subjects were screened out. Results consistent with Rametti 2011.

Lawrence, Dr A. Do Some Men Who Desire Sex Reassignment Have a Mental Disorder? Comment on Meyer-Bahlburg (2010) 2011

Lawrence, A. Autogynephilia: A Paraphilic Model of Gender Identity Disorder.,_a_paraphilic_model_of_GID.pdf

Lawrence, A. Further Validation of Blanchard’s Typology: A Reply to Nuttbrock, Bockting, Rosenblum, Mason, and Hwahng (2010)’s_Typology_A_Reply_to_Nuttbrock_Bockting_Rosenblum_Mason_and_Hwahng_2010

Lawrence, Anne A. Clinical and Theoretical Parallels Between Desire for Limb Amputation and Gender Identity Disorder 2006

Lawrence Anne A. Erotic Target Location Errors: An Underappreciated Paraphilic Dimension

Li et al. Childhood Gender-Typed Behavior and Adolescent Sexual Orientation: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study. 2016.

Moser, C. Autogynephilia in Women. Journal of Homosexuality. 2009

Moser, C. Blanchard’s Autogynephilia Theory: A Critique

Nuttbrock et al. A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria.

Paul, JP. Childhood cross-gender behavior and adult homosexuality: the resurgence of biological models of sexuality.

Rametti et al. White matter microstructure in female to male transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment. A diffusion tensor imaging study. 2011

Rieger et al.   Sexual Arousal and Masculinity-Femininity of Women

Ruigrok, A et al. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure. 2014

Savic & Arver. Sex dimorphism of the brain in male-to-female transsexuals. 2011

Sexton, L et al Where the Margins Meet: A Demographic Assessment of Transgender Inmates in Male Prisons

Smenenyna, S et al. The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa’afafine.’afafine

Todd, B K et al. ‘Preferences for ‘Gender-typed’ Toys in Boys and Girls Aged 9 to 32 Months.’ 2016

Veale, Clarke and  Lomax, “Sexuality of Male-to-Female Transsexuals”

Winter, S. Of transgender and sin in Asia.

Winter S, Udomsak N (2002) Male, Female and Transgender : Stereotypes and Self in Thailand.

Winter S. Gender Stereotype and Self among Transgenders: Underlying Elements.

Winter S. Language and Identity in Transgender.

Winter S and King M. Well and Truly Fucked: Transwomen, Stigma, Sex Work and Sexual Health.

Winter, S. Transpeople (Khom Kham Phet) in Thailand.

Zucker, K. et al. Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder

Links to Non Peer-reviewed articles by reliable authors

Costello, CG. On Trans Gender Identity and the “Intersex Brain”

A man of intersex history takes a look at some of the more controversial strategies of trans activists.

Kando, Thomas. An interview.

Kando explains the background to his study of transsexuals in 1969

Links to Theses and Dissertations.

Akhter, S. Visual Attention to Erotic Stimuli in Androphilic Male-to-Female Transsexuals. (PhD Thesis, approved.)

Interesting to note the similarities here in responses, between ‘androphilic’ (homosexual or HSTS) transsexuals and heterosexual men, albeit to the opposite sex. Probably because MtF transsexuals are not women; they are men, inverted.

Note: This is Veale’s Master’s Thesis. Note also that she is not a scientist.
Links to Non-linked references (buy the book!)

Hirschfeld M. Die Transvestiten. Berlin, Germany: Alfred Pulver Macher; 1910


Links hosted on other sites:

The following links can be accessed through the University of Calgary’s web site:

Contents of the UCC archive: University-of-Calgary

General Psychology


Borderline Personality Disorder

Sprague et al. Borderline Personality Disorder as a Female Phenotypic Expression of Psychopathy? 2012

Skodol, Bender. Why Are Women Diagnosed Borderline More Than Men? 2003

Sansone and Sansone. Gender Patterns in Borderline Personality Disorder 2011

Sex and Gender


Ritchie, S et al. Sex differences in the adult human brain: Evidence from 5,216 UK Biobank participants 2017

Ruigrok, Amber N.V. A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure 2013

de Vries, Geert J. 1Sex Differences in the Brain: the Relation between Structure and Function 2009

Social Science

Huber J. A theory of family, economy, and gender. 1988


If you would like to discuss any of the above or if you have a link to add that is relevant, please contact me using the form below.




Links was originally published on Rod Fleming's World